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The European Handbook – Second Edition
Defining, writing and applying learning outcomes

This second edition of the Cedefop European handbook on learning outcomes is addressed to individuals and institutions actively involved in defining and writing learning outcomes in education and training.


Its ambition is to act as a reference point for cooperation in this area. It offers concrete examples of the use of learning outcomes and provides an overview of existing guidance and research material supporting the definition and writing of learning outcomes. The revised handbook also aims to promote dialogue between education and training and labor market stakeholders, by building on material from different parts of the education and training system and bridging the gap between institutions and sectors.